Citation Guidelines

In all published work and presentations, please acknowledge the HCD as either the source or the intermediary of the data. When you download data, you should note the date for future reference.

We suggest the following format for bibliographic citation:

Human Cause-of-Death Database. French Institute for Demographic Studies (France) and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Germany). Available at (data downloaded on [date]).

If requirements of a publisher or other important reasons force you to choose another citation format, please make sure that this citation includes the full name of the database, the full names of both institutional data providers, and the HCD Internet address.

Please note, however, that a portion of the data available in this collection comes from other sources. In such situations, it is appropriate to cite first the original source of the data, but also to acknowledge the HCD as the intermediary.

You will find a list of data sources used for each country (see "References" and "Background and Documentation" on each country page). It is the user's responsibility to determine whether the data being cited are original to the HCD or they come from a non-HCD source. It is also the user's responsibility to give proper credit to the organizations and individuals whose data are contained in this database.